Friday, July 29, 2011

Innovative Endovascular Procedure Saves Man's Arm

Suwinder Singh; a 72 year old from Patiala was in severe pain in his right hand. He had an earlier fistula for dialysis as his kidneys had failed. He was seen at various hospitals in Chandigarh, Mohali , Delhi and Gurgaon . However his hand continued to become blue and he could not sleep because of the pain. He then came to Dr Harinder Singh Bedi - Head of Cardio Vascular Endovascular & Thoracic Surgery at the Christian Medical College & Hospital in Ludhiana. Dr Bedi realized that the hand was rapidly turning gangrenous and would have to be cut if nothing was done. The reason for the low flow of blood to the hand was the fact that the shunt for dialysis was stealing blood from the hand. The option of narrowing the shunt had already been tried but had failed and the pain was terrible. If the shunt was dismantled it left the problem of how to get the dialysis done.
Dr Bedi has had extensive experience during his work in Australia and he is credited with having a Limca World Record in vascular surgery to his name. He has also extensive experience with endovascular surgery (in fact the first hybrid redo endovascular operation was done by him in Punjab and was awarded the first prize at an International Conference). A high risk surgery was planned. The shunt was taken down and without any additional cut an endovascular procedure was done and a stent put in the narrowed artery. The hand colour improved dramatically and the pain disappeared. Now the issue was how to put in a new shunt so that the life saving dialysis could continue. There were no sites available on the hands which are the usual sites for a shunt. So a innovative method of putting a graft in the leg was used. A special imported tube was grafted between the artery and vein of the leg. It started functioning immediately – a hand shunt takes about 3-4 weeks to ‘mature’.
The patient and his family are very happy that they came to CMC. Mr Suwinder Singh is now totally pain free. The other members of the team are Dr A Joseph, Dr Arun Gupta, Dr Neharika and Dr Arjin.
 Dr Abraham G Thomas – Director of CMC & H – said that Dr Bedi and his team had a good experience with the creation of dialysis shunts and this helped them to devise this innovative method.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

4 SSPs 13 SPs and 16 DSPs transferred in Punjab

Chandigarh, July 28:  The Punjab government has today issued the transfer orders of 4 SSPs and 13 SPs and 16 DSPs  with immediate effect. 
According to a spokesman of Punjab government Mr. Balkar Singh Sidhu, PPS and Mr. Rajinder Kumar Shardha, PPS have been posted as SSPs of newly created districts Pathankot and Fazilka respectively. Mr. Manminder Singh, PPS has been posted as SSP Tarntaran and Mr. Surinder Kumar Kalia as SSP Gurdaspur.
          Besides this Mr.Gurmit Singh, PPS has been posted as SP (H) Ferozepur, Mr. Gurpreet Singh, PPS  as SP(D) Fatehgarh Sahib, Mr. Gagan Ajit Singh , PPS as additional DCP-II Jalandhar, Mr. Manmohan Singh PPS as SP (H), Tarntaran, Mr. Ranbir Singh, PPS as SP (Traffic) Tarntaran, Mr. Naresh Kumar, PPS as additional DCP-II Amritsar, Mr. Gursharan Singh Bedi, PPS as Zonal SP /Crime Bathinda, Mr. Jai Pal Singh, PPS as Zonal SP/Crime, Patiala, Mr. Harmohan Singh PPS as SP(H)/SBS Nagar , Mr. Satinder Singh, PPS as SP/Intelligence, Mr. Manjit Singh, PPS as additional DCP-I, Ludhiana, Mr. Ravinder Kumar Bakshi as Assistant Commandant, 2nd IRB /Ladda Kothi, Sangrur and Mr. Bhupinderjit Singh, PPS as  Assistant Commandant Ist/IRB Patiala.
The spokesman further said that Mrs. Gurmeet Kaur, PPS has been posted as  DSP/Jaito, Mr. Bikramjit Singh PPS as DSP/City Bathinda, Mr. Kesar Singh PPS as  DSP/City-I, Patiala, Mr. Surinderpal Singh, PPS as DSP/SD/Sardulgarh with additional charge of DSP/SD/Budhlada, Mr. Harjit Singh, PPS as DSP/SD/Fatehgarh Churian, Mr. Balwinder Singh PPS as DSP/Vigilance Bureau, Punjab, Mr. Narinder Singh, PPS  as ACP/Hqrs. Amritsar, Mr. Ranjit Singh, PPS as DSP/D, Batala, Mr. Kehar Singh, PPS as ACP/Focal Point, Ludhiana, Mr. Jaswant Singh, PPS as ACP/Traffic, Amritsar, Mr. Cheta Singh, PPS as DSP/Hqrs. Patiala and Mr. Gurpreet Singh, PPS as DSP/D, Tarntaran. Besides this, five DSPs namely Mr. Paramjit Singh, PPS, Mr. Tilak Raj, PPS, Mr. Nahar Singh, PPS, Mr. Ranjit Singh, PPS, Mr. Mohinder Singh, PPS and  Mr. Gurdarshan Singh, PPS have been posted  as DSPs in Chief Minister Security, Pb., Chandigarh.

Friday, July 22, 2011

Joint Base Fuelers Keep Aircraft Ready

By Donna Miles 
American Forces Press Service

JOINT BASE MCGUIRE-DIX-LAKEHURST, N.J., July 21, 2011 - With realignments, base closures and joint basing initiatives bringing together all four services here, the Air Force's 87th Logistics Readiness Squadron has taken jointness to a new level keeping their broad mix of aircraft fueled.
Click photo for screen-resolution image
Air Force Airman Kyle Schoenfelt, right, a member of the 87th Logistics Readiness Squadron at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J., and Marine Corps Staff Sgt. F.O. Johnson from Heavy Marine Helicopter 772 "Hustlers" prepare to refuel Marine CH-53 Super Stallion helicopters, July 8, 2011. DOD photo by Donna Miles 
Once upon a time, the 87th LRS was responsible for providing petroleum, oil and lubricants primarily for C-17 Globemaster III and KC-10 Extender aircraft assigned to wings at McGuire Air Force Base, as well as for transient aircraft at the base. That was before McGuire merged with neighboring Fort Dix and
Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst on Oct. 1, 2009, to become the Defense Department's only tri-service base.
It also was before two realignment actions brought Navy and Marine Corps units from Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove, Pa., and Marine Corps assets from Marine Corps Reserve Center Johnstown, Pa., to the New Jersey base during the past several months.
The merger and new arrivals brought to the joint base a full complement of Army, Navy and Marine Corps fixed-wing and rotary aircraft -– all now being fueled by the 87th LRS.
"At most deployed locations, it's pretty typical to service all types of aircraft," said Air Force Senior Master Sgt. Jon Kristof, 87th LRS superintendent. "But at the stateside location, it is somewhat out of the norm to do it on a regular basis. That doesn't matter to us here. We service them all."
The changes have increased monthly fuel output here by about 600,000 gallons, for a total of about 4 million gallons. Most of the newly arrived aircraft are helicopters or smaller fixed-wing planes with relatively small fuel tanks, Kristof explained.
"That means we do a lot more [fuel] runs, but not necessarily a lot more gallons," he said.
Learning to refuel different aircraft, and to work with other services to identify their unique ways of doing things, involves "a learning curve on both sides of the fence," Kristof said.
"As new customers, they have to adapt to how the Air Force does business, and we have to adapt to how the other services do their business when they are refueling," he said. "Even though we are all Department of Defense, we still speak a different language, so we have all learned a lot about that over the last year and a half."
That makes Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst a perfect training ground to keep the fuels management flight primed for future deployments. It's particularly valuable, Kristof said, in giving junior members such as Airman 1st Class Alonso Hall experience working with other services before their first deployments.
Hall, with just 14 months in the Air Force, has been a quick study. He was named the 87th LRS' "Pumper of the Month" in June for personally dispensing 422,271 gallons of JP-8 jet fuel. Hall's recognition came shortly after the 87th LRS was named the Air Force's best fuels management flight for fiscal 2010.
The award marked the first time the Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst squadron received the Air Force's only flight-level award, presented by the American Petroleum Institute. The award was based on direct mission support, innovative management and quality-of-life initiatives.
"This was a total team effort in every way," said Air Force Chief Master Sgt. Eric Stone, the 87th LRS' flight chief.
"Every person in this flight had a part in winning this coveted award," he said. "The accomplishments for the package were collected from our home base, downrange, Army, Navy and Marine Corps personnel making this a true joint-base accomplishment."
Related Sites:
87th Mission Support Group
Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst 

Click photo for screen-resolution imageAn R-11 refueling vehicle from the 87th Logistics Readiness Squadron at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J., refuels a CH-53 Super Stallion helicopter from the Heavy Marine Helicopter 772 "Hustlers," July 8, 2011. DOD photo by Donna Miles
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Indian Constitution Violates Itself

 Article 341 Para 3 v/s Article 15 Para 1 and 2        By Madhu Chandra
Article 15 of the Indian Constitution gives fundamental rights to all Indian citizens against any form of discrimination either by the state or any citizen on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. Every Indian is proud about this guarantee without much knowing that the same constitution violets itself on the basis of religion. The Scheduled Caste, known untouchable or Dalits suffer under this violation for sixty one years.       
The President Order 1950 enacted Para 3 of Article 341, which discriminates Dalits on the basis of religion against fundamental rights guaranteed under Indian Constitution. The Presidential Order 1950 disqualifies Dalits to be members of Scheduled Caste known untouchable, if they choose any religion other than Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism. Dalits who converted to Sikhism was disqualified until rectified the error by amending of Para 3 of Article 341 in 1956. So was also those Dalits who converted to Buddhism until 1990.
Pure form of constitutional violation by its own constitution, it still exists without any attempt to rectify it when the matter of interest related to those Dalits who have converted to Islam and Christianity.
It is a direct punishment to Dalits under the constitutional Presidential Order of 1950. It is like a punishment to Dalits, “if you leave Hinduism and convert to any other religion, which is also guarantee by Article 25 of Indian Constitution to profess any faith or religion of your choice, the constitutional provision will be taken away. This punishment includes the affirmative action programs for Dalits and legal provision like the Prevention of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe Atrocity Acts 1989.
The constitutional provisions and affirmation action facilities are barred from those Dalits who have converted from Hinduism to any other religions, first to Sikhism till 1956, Buddhism till 1990 and continues to those who converted to Christians and Muslims. If this is not the violation of its own constitutional fundamental rights on the basis of religion, then what is the Article 341 Para 3?
As the constitution also provides the constitutional remedies, so the Sikh Dalits and Buddhist Dalits have struggled to get their fundamental, birth and constitutional rights and they got it after discrimination for six years to Sikhs and 40 years to Buddhist.
What about Christians and Muslims? They too have been fighting for their fundamental rights but unfortunately, their cry is not heard for last sixty one years. Commissions after commission were setup to look into the struggle and almost all of them have recommended to include Dalits converted to Islam and Christianity, including the latest Commission for Minority Religion and Linguistic Minority also known as Misra Commission, setup by United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government in 2005.
Misra Commission has submitted its report to UPA Government on May 22, 2007 with recommendation to delink religion from Presidential Order 1950. Interestingly, rather surprisingly, UPA government has kept silent after Misra Commission report that the government is studying the report again. If UPA government wants to study Misra Commission reports, when then commission was setup?
The struggle continues and so also faith-based discrimination under Indian state to its own people. Dalit Christians from across the nation have decided to launch four days hunger strike at national capital city from July 25 – 27 and mass rally on 28, to bring pressure upon the government during Manson Parliament sessions.

The Chronology Dalit Christian reservation demands is listed at this link 

Madhu Chandra is a social activist and research scholar based in New Delhi. He works as Regional Secretary of All India Christian Council Spokes Person of North East Support Centre & Helpline and National Secretary of All India Confederation of SC/ST Organisations 

Thursday, July 07, 2011

Save 10 year old boy Gulshan in CMC

Ludhiana: Gulshan S/o.Vishvanath (our hospital no.C7322437) a 10 year old boy admitted in CMC & Hospital from 19/06/2011. He has undergone surgery for traumatic perforation of small intestine cause due to fall from height. His general condition is serious and as he is septic and he is on the ventilator. His treatment can cost anywhere upto 1 lac rupees or more. 
The boy belongs to a very poor family and is financially handicapped and is in desperate need for help. His father is a daily wage migrant laborer earning upto Rs. 150- 160 a day. He is unable to meet the cost of his treatment and further surgery.
We encourage you to come forward and help this child by contributing as much as you can. The parents would be eternally grateful for such help.
The Department of Paediatric Surgery at the Christian Medical College & Hospital appeals to all well-meaning people to contribute towards this child’s treatment.
Donations will be taken in cash / cheque / bank draft. Cheques/bank drafts should be made in favour of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Society’ with “Gulshan, C7322437 written at the back of all cheques and drafts.  All donations to this cause will have income tax exemption. For all cash donations please contact Dr. William Bhatti (+91 9876609924) or Dr. Dhruv Ghosh (+91 9915198894), Dr. Nandini K. Bedi (+91 9914360480) from the department of Paediatric Surgery. --Shalu Arora // Rector kathuria

White House Reverses Policy on Suicide Condolence Letters

By Jim Garamone 
American Forces Press Service
WASHINGTON, July 6, 2011 - President Barack Obama and Defense Department officials will send condolence letters to the families of service members who commit suicide in a war zone.
The change is in keeping with administration efforts to remove the stigma of mental health treatment, an administration official said on background.
The president last year ordered a review of the long-held policy of not sending condolence letters to the next of kin of those who commit suicide in war zones. White House officials yesterday announced the policy change allowing for condolence letters to be sent. The president made his decision after consulting with the defense secretary and members of the military chain of command.
"As commander in chief, I am deeply grateful for the service of all our men and women in uniform, and grieve for the loss of those who suffer from the wounds of war - seen and unseen," Obama said in a statement released this morning. "Since taking office, I've been committed to removing the stigma associated with the unseen wounds of war, which is why I've worked to expand our mental health budgets, and ensure that all our men and women in uniform receive the care they need."
Defense leaders will follow the president's lead. "The administration will now send condolence letters to families of service members who commit suicide while deployed to Operation New Dawn, Operation Enduring Freedom and other combat operations," Pentagon spokesman Marine Col. Dave Lapan said.
"This issue is emotional, painful, and complicated, but these Americans served our nation bravely," Obama said in his statement. "They didn't die because they were weak. And the fact that they didn't get the help they needed must change."
U.S. service members have borne an incredible burden of war, Obama said. "We need to do everything in our power to honor their service, and to help them stay strong for themselves, for their families and for our nation," he said.
Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has long favored sending condolence letters to the next of kin of those who committed suicide, a Joint Staff official said on background.
Other military leaders also spoke in favor of the decision, including Army Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Peter Chiarelli. In a blog posting on the White House site, the general said the greatest regret of his military career was not recognizing the sacrifice of a soldier in Iraq.
Chiarelli commanded the 1st Cavalry Division in Iraq from 2004 to 2005. "I lost 169 soldiers during that year-long deployment," he wrote in the blog. "However, the monument we erected at Fort Hood, Texas, in memoriam lists 168 names. I approved the request of others not to include the name of the one soldier who committed suicide. I deeply regret my decision."
Service members are tired and stretched, Chiarelli said. "The persistent high operational tempo of this war, the terrible things some have seen or experienced in combat, have undoubtedly taken a toll on them," he said. "Many are struggling with the 'invisible wounds' of this war, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety. Any attempt to characterize these individuals as somehow weaker than others is simply misguided."
Even with leaders' emphasis on getting mental health help, a stigma persists, Chiarelli said. "We remain committed to raising awareness, helping individuals increase their resiliency while ensuring they have access to the right support services and resources," he said. "That said, if we hope to truly have an impact, we must continue to do everything we can to eliminate the stigma."
The president's decision acknowledges that the service rendered by these individuals, as well as the service and sacrifices made by their family, deserve the same recognition given to those men and women who die as a result of enemy action, Chiarelli said.
"Since the start of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan nearly a decade ago, over 6,000 men and women have paid the ultimate price for freedom," he said. "Every day we have honored those fallen in combat. Now, in accordance with our commander in chief, we will honor all those who have fallen in service to our great nation."

Wednesday, July 06, 2011

An appeal to save 2 ½ year old boy Dhani

This is to state that patient Dhani S/o  Ram Kumar (our hospital no. C7257304) a 2 ½ year old boy admitted in CMC & Hospital from 27/05/2011. He has undergone surgery for Intestinal tuberculosis with intestinal obstruction and perforation. His general condition is serious and he requires prolonged care, good nutrition and management, antituburcular drugs and further surgery. His prolonged treatment will cost anywhere upto a lac of rupees. The parents of this child are very poor. The father is the only earning member of the family and is a daily wage laborer earning upto Rs. 100 per day. He will not be able to meet the cost of surgery.
The Department of Paediatric Surgery at the Christian Medical College & Hospital appeals to all well-meaning people to contribute towards this child’s treatment as he is in desperate need.
Donations will be taken in cash / cheque / bank draft. Cheques/bank drafts should be made in favour of ‘Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Society’ with“Dhani, C7257304” written at the back of all cheques and drafts.  All donations to this cause will have income tax exemption. For all cash donations please contact Dr. William Bhatti (+91 9876609924) or Dr. Dhruv Ghosh (+91 9915198894), Dr. Nandini K. Bedi (+91 9914360480) from the department of Paediatric Surgery. 
Any help coming for his treatment would be welcome and the parents would be eternally grateful for such help. 
--Shalu Arora

“The Health Minister must retract his comments...."

Amnesty International Says Indian Minister’s Homosexuality Remarks a Setback for Gay Rights

Washington, DC
The Indian authorities must ensure that the rights of gay men are protected, Amnesty International said today, after India’s health minister described homosexuality as a “disease.” 

Addressing a conference about HIV/AIDS on Monday, Ghulum Nabo Azad said sex between two men is “completely unnatural and shouldn’t happen.” 

“These outrageous remarks linking consensual sexual activity to a disease simply encourage discrimination against men who have sex with men,” said Emily Gray, Amnesty International’s researcher on sexual orientation and gender identity. “The Health Minister must retract his comments, and the Indian Government must reaffirm its commitment to protect the rights of all of its citizens, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or consensual sexual behavior.” 

In a landmark judgment, India decriminalized homosexuality in 2009. The ruling overturned a 19th century British colonial law which bans engagement in consensual sex with an individual of the same sex. 

"India has come a long way in the past decade in protecting its vulnerable populations, including its lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations,” said Gray. “But they are engaging in double standards here. On the one hand, they have decriminalized homosexuality and taken a significant step toward ensuring that people in India can express their sexual orientation. On the other hand, its chief public health officer is anthologizing homosexuality. This is a severe setback for sexual rights. It would be a great shame if India’s recent progress on protecting the rights of sexual minorities was undermined by government induced hostility towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.” 

The World Health Organization now recognizes that protecting the rights of the gay community is essential to ensuring safe sex practices and to help stem the spread of HIV.  Public stigmatization has been shown to lead to fewer men seeking testing or treatment for HIV/AIDS. 

Amnesty International is a Nobel Peace Prize-winning grassroots activist organization with more than 3 million supporters, activists and volunteers in more than 150 countries campaigning for human rights worldwide. The organization investigates and exposes abuses, educates and mobilizes the public, and works to protect people wherever justice, freedom, truth and dignity are denied. 
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Sunday, July 03, 2011

Panetta Pledges 'No Hollow Force' on His Watch

By Jim Garamone 
American Forces Press Service

WASHINGTON, July 1, 2011 - New Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta pledged there will be no hollow force on his watch.

Click photo for screen-resolution image
Marine Corps Lt. Gen. John Kelly, the secretary's senior military advisor, greets Defense Secretary designate Leon E. Panetta as he arrives at the Pentagon July 1, 2011. DOD photo by Jim Garamone 
The secretary made the commitment in a message to the Defense Department released after he took the oath of office this morning. DOD General Counsel Jeh Johnson administered the oath in the secretary's office. Taking the oath transferred responsibility for the department from Robert M. Gates.
Panetta also pledged to be a tireless advocate for service members and their families. "You and your families will always be foremost on my mind and at the top of my agenda," he said.
The secretary will not hesitate to do what needs to be done to defend America. He also will fight for the needs "of the men and women who serve in harm's way, and the families who support them," he said. "Even as the United States addresses fiscal challenges at home, there will be no hollow force on my watch. That will require us all to be disciplined in how we manage taxpayer resources."
Later today, Panetta will meet with Deputy Defense Secretary William J. Lynn III, and participate in a "tank" meeting with the members of the Joint Chiefs, said Doug Wilson, assistant secretary of defense for public affairs. Panetta and his wife, Sylvia, also will have lunch in his Pentagon office with Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and his wife, Deborah.
The secretary, who served as the director of the CIA, has been intimately involved with operations around the world since the beginning of the Obama administration. The nation is at war, he said, and must prevail against its enemies.
"We will persist in our efforts to disrupt, dismantle and ultimately defeat al-Qaida," he said. "The successful operation that killed Osama Bin Laden -- a mission that showcased American military strength and precision -- is a major step toward that goal."
In Afghanistan, the secretary said service members must continue to work with Afghan security forces and coalition partners to transition security responsibility to the Afghans by 2014. The goal must be an Afghanistan that never again becomes a safe haven for terrorists, he said.
The transition of American troops in Iraq is well under way with more than 100,000 U.S. service members out of the nation, and 48,000 due to leave by the end of the year.
"As we continue our transition out of Iraq, we must cement a strategic relationship with the Iraqi government, one based not solely on our military footprint there but on a real and lasting partnership," Panetta said. "It is in America's interests to help Iraq realize its potential to become a stable democracy in a vitally important region in the world and to reinforce that responsibility, for the future security of Iraq must belong to the Iraqis themselves."
The secretary has a long public service career that began as an Army intelligence officer in 1964. He also served in the House of Representatives from California, director of the Office of Management and Budget and White House chief of staff in President Clinton's administration. Throughout his career, he said, he has focused on being disciplined with the taxpayers' money, but not short-changing security.
"We must preserve the excellence and superiority of our military while looking for ways to identify savings," he said. "While tough budget choices will need to be made, I do not believe in the false choice between fiscal discipline and a strong national defense. We will all work together to achieve both."
The secretary noted he is taking office just before Independence Day. He said his parents -- who immigrated to California from Italy -- believed it was important to give something back to their adopted country. "I will never forget my father's words: 'to be free, we must also be secure,'" Panetta said. "As Americans come together to commemorate what we and those before us have accomplished, and as I take on my new role, my thoughts are with you and your families.
"You are making personal sacrifices to preserve our liberty, serving on front lines around the world," he continued. "You are fighting to keep America safe. Rest assured that I will fight with you and for you."
Panetta said that in the days and weeks ahead he will meet with all levels of military personnel and DOD civilians.
Related Sites:
Panetta Message to the Defense Department 

Saturday, July 02, 2011

Organic cotton to cloths

Cotton is one of the most chemically intensive among all field crops. Cotton is grown on an estimated 3% of the total cultivated area in the world, but uses about 25% of all insecticides consumed in agriculture. Pests are such a serious threat to cotton production that economic yields are almost impossible to achieve without monitoring pests and adopting chemical controls. Plant protection operations have become the crucial
aspect of production practices and pesticides that are banned for use on food crops are commonly used on cotton. In many countries, especially where cotton is machine picked, herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators and harvest aid chemicals in addition to fertilizers are integral parts of production practices. Even after harvesting, cotton fabric at textile mills is treated with a variety of chemicals for improving appearance and
performance. Cotton fabrics are often processed with toxic dyes and formaldehydes before they reach end users. Growing cotton without synthetic fertilizers and other chemicals has been termed green, environment friendly, biodynamic, etc., but organic production is the most popular name used in the cotton industry. Organic cotton production is a system of growing cotton without synthetic chemical fertilizers, herbicides, conventional synthetic insecticides, growth regulators, growth stimulators, ball openers or defoliants. It is a system that contributes to healthy soils and/or people. The organic system promotes enhanced biological activity, encourages sustainability and commands proactive management of production. Thus in this paper we are discussing about the organic cotton production and its processing.
Initially organic word was used in food industry to insure the hygiene nature of food items. But due to increasing environment related issues this word also used in textile industry. These days not only organic cotton, also organic wool and silk are hot issues. Some facts: Many chemicals used in conventional farming were first developed for warfare. A source says that 25 million people worldwide are poisoned by pesticides every year. 25% of the pesticides and fertilisers used in the world are sprayed in conventional cotton crops. Over 0.75 kg of toxic chemicals are used to grow the cotton needed for a conventional cotton sheet set and about 0.5 kg to make a T-shirt and pair of jeans. Among all the pesticides used, roughly 65% of the chemicals are used against insects, 20% are herbicides, 14% are defoliants and growth regulators while fungicides and others comprise only 1% of the total toxic chemicals used on cotton.
What is Organic Cotton and what is the difference between Organic and Conventional cotton?
Conventional cotton is grown on the soil with agricultural chemicals and synthetic fertilizer and pesticide and chemical spray is used to defoliate for harvest.Organic cotton was grown without any synthetic chemicals. Harvest has to occur on soil at least 3 years after the most recent use of a prohibited material. Soil’s organic content is managed by crop rotation, cover cropping, manuring and/or composting. Weed management is by grazing shallow cultivation and also includes crop rotation, cover cropping, mulching and smoother cropping. For insect management instead of using agricultural pesticide, extensive use beneficial organisms such as parasites, predators and pathogens are used. Farmers wait until the first frosts to give plants natural defoilation to harvest.
Although raw cotton is organic, chemicals used during the process of finishing are manufactured carefully from raw cotton to the end products in accordance with organic guidelines. Hydrochloric or Sulfuric acid, adhesive or glue bonding agents or synthetic dyes are never used. Instead materials such as hot water , low impact and biodegradable anionic, citric or acetic acid are used. For bleaching, polishing, Color brightening and softening, hot water, protease, lipase, amylase and cellulose enzymes are used and chemicals such as chlorine, sodium chlorite are never used.
Garments made of organic cotton shrink some because no chemicals are applied to prevent shrinkage. Garments are made slightly larger in sizes, considering some degrees of shrinkage after wash. Detergent without bleach that easily dissolves in water is recommended to be used. For eg. Detergent called “ Multiple soap “ made of coconut is very good.
Warp yarn is sized with starch and would around a beam like an oil drum. For sizing, usually chemical starch is used but in the case of organic cotton, natural starch like corn starch is used.
Reasons for organic cotton production : Organic cotton production is also a consumer driven initiative. There are many harmful chemicals that people do not know about. Twelve of these chemicals are known as persistent organic pollutants or POPs, which are the most hazardous of all man-made products or wastes that cause deaths, birth defects and diseases among humans and animals. They are so dangerous that 120 nations agreed at a United Nations Environment Programme conference to outlaw them. Of the 151 signatories to the convention 98 states have ratified it; sadly the United States and Russia have not yet done so. There are three of those chemicals used in cotton manufacturing. The following are the main factors responsible for organic cotton production:
What Makes Organic Cotton Different?
1. It starts with seeds:-If you think that conventional and organic cotton starts out the same way, I’m sorry to tell you you’re wrong. Actually, conventional cotton farmers don’t just start out with approximately 70% GMO, or genetically modified organism, seeds, but they also treat their seeds with fungicides and insecticides before planting. Organic farmers, however, use only untreated, non-GMO seeds for their cotton harvest.
2. Soil and Water: Where Cotton Grows Up:- Maybe the seeds are a little different, but they’re planted in the same earth and fed the same water, right? Wrong. Conventional cotton is planted in synthetic fertilizers, and there’s actually less soil because of a predominantly mono-crop culture. Incidentally, conventional cotton production requires intensive irrigation, adding wasteful water management to conventional cotton farming’s list of flaws.
Organic cotton farming, on the other hand, already has strong soil because of annual crop rotation, so no additional fertilizers are needed. The cotton crop also retains water more efficiently because of increased organic matter in the soil, which means organic farms play an important part in water conservation efforts.
3. Keeping the Weeds at Bay:- Weeds can certainly be a crop’s worst enemy, so there’s no question they have to either be removed or destroyed. The conventional method calls for inhibiting weed germination by treating the soil with herbicides, a method that often requires several treatments to be effective. Organic cotton farming, however, requires that weeds be eliminated physically, not chemically. Organically, weeds are controlled exclusively through cultivation and hand hoeing.
4. Proper Pest Control:-Because conventional cotton production readily uses insecticides as its primary method of pest control. Additionally, aerial spraying is a frequent method of distributing the chemicals and potential drift can be lethal. Organic cotton production, however, avoids pesticide use altogether. On organic cotton farms a balance between pests and their natural predators is created through the presence and maintenance of healthy soil. Organic farms also uses beneficial insects instead of insecticides to control pests.
5. From Harvesting to Your Home:- Before the cotton crop can be harvested it must defoliate or be defoliated, meaning the leaves must come off. In conventional cotton farming this is done almost entirely with, you guessed it, more chemicals. In organic cotton farming, however, chemical defoliation is not an option, and farmers rely mostly on the seasonal freeze for leaf removal. If the season proves to be unreliable, organic farmers might turn water management as a defoliation stimulant.
Organic cotton certification:- For certification,. Harvest has to occur on soil at least 3 years after the most recent use of a prohibited material. All the organic fibre we use is inspected ad certified by TDA or IFOAM accredited agencies, such as Skal, Imo and Agreco. All of our organic fabrics are produed from certified organic cotton.
The process to make these organic cotton into fabric sheets:- The cotton used is grown organically. This means that the seeds must be non-genetically engineered. Insects are controlled by methods that stimulate what occur in the natural environment, where ‘good’ bugs eat ‘bad’ bugs. There is also be an emphasis on keeping plants healthy-healthy plants are more resistant to infection-fields are usually weeded by hand. Organic farm are not allowed to use any chemical fertilizer or chemical inputs, such as herbicides or other pesticides. These standards are set forth by the international federation of organic agriculture movements (IFOAM).
The organic cotton for our organic cotton sheets and duvets are grown in three developing countries-India, turkey and Uganda on family farms that range in size from 2-250 acres. After the cotton has been picked, it is ginned to remove the seeds from the cotton fibre (lint).The lint is then baled and send to the mill where it is spun into the yarns, witch is then woven into fabric. It is the state-of-art facility with computerized looms and best spinning equipments available. Just as important, the facility is ISO 9002 certified-witch speaks well for both the quality of production and its labor and environment practicesAt the mill, the cotton is carded so that the fibers are aligned. It also separate out the longest and strongest fibers from the weaker, shorter fibers.
The carded cotton is then ring spun into yarn.Next the yarn is woven in to fabric. To do so it is immersed in a wheat starch solution, a sizing. This makes easier to weave.
From here the actual chemical process begins where the serious precautions are required:- In this process we removes the starch cleans softens, and then pre shrunk the fibre so it feels and looks finished. Some of the fabrics are put through a hydrogen peroxide bleaching process to whiten it .up until this point neither our cotton fibre, yarn nor fabric has come into contact with any chemicals. A number of chemicals are used in the various steps of finishing and dyeing only chemicals that are approved by certifying agencies, both in US and Europe are used.
Per – shrinking is a wholly non chemical process that involves pulling and stretching the fabric using the fabric rubber pads and steam. Pre shrinking molds the fabric to its final measurements. Befor going for details of various processes first we see the list of various banned and approved chemicals given by varios agencies for the processing of organic cotton.
List of chemicals Allowed and Prohibited for overall process of organic cotton
Allowed Chemicals
Name of material Status Annotion
Acetic Acid Allowed Non-Synthetic forms only
Adhesive bonding Agents Allowed 21 CFR 175.105 and 176.170(b)
Aluminium silicate Allowed
Aluminium sulfate Allowed
Carbon dioxide Allowed
CMC Allowed Can be used only on products labeled “made with organic” constituents.
NaOH Allowed For hydrogen Peroxide or ozone bleaching, mercerizing, or scouring only.
KOH Allowed See NaOH
Chelating Agents Allowed Non-synthetic forms only
Citric Acid Allowed
Clay based scours Allowed Must not be formulated with petroleum solvents or other prohibited materials.
Cleaning compounds Allowed Any USDA/EPA cleaner(except Quaternary Ammonium compounds)approved for use provided equipment can be rinsed down to eliminate any resulting residue
Copper Allowed When used as formed metal sheets to prevent transposition of metallic ions
Dyes, plant or animal based Allowed Cannot contain other prohibited Substances. May contain GRAS listed ingredients
Dye, synthetic Allowed Can be used only on products labeled”made with organic” constituents. Must meet OECD and ETAD limits on biodegradability and toxicity as listed in Appendix of these standards.
Enzymes Allowed Cannot derive from GEO’s
Flow agents Allowed Non-synthetic forms only
Hydrogen peroxide Allowed
Iron Allowed When used as formed metal sheets to prevent transposition of metallic ions
Knitting Oils Allowed Must be water soluble
Mined minerals Allowed Cannot be subjected to further processing
Nitrogen Allowed
Oxalic Acid Allowed
Ozone Allowed Cannot be produced by passing ionisation radiation through water
Sewing Thread Allowed May be produced from cotton or PET
Soap Allowed Ammonium soaps prohibited
Soda Ash Allowed
Sodium silicate Allowed
Softeners, fatty acids and their esters Allowed
Softeners, poly ethylene Allowed Allowed with products labeled as ”made with organic (specified constituents”.
Starch Allowed Plant starches only. Cannot produced from GEO’s
Surfactants Allowed Emulsifiable and biodegradable forms only. Cannot contain alkylphenol ethoxylates or petroleum based materials.
Tannic Acid Allowed
Tartaric Acid and cream of Tartar Allowed
Tin Allowed When used as formed metal sheets to prevent transposition of metallic ions
Weaving oils Allowed Must be water soluble
Yarn Waxes Allowed Must be animal or plant based or water soluble

Prohibited Materials
-MES Prohibited Methyl ester sulphonate
AOX – absorbable halogenated hydrocarbon Prohibited Or substances that can cause their formation
Alkylphenol ethoxylates Prohibited
Aromatic solvents Prohibited
Chlorine and chlorinated compounds Prohibited Includes organo- choloride carriers
Flow agents Prohibited Synthetic forms
Fluorocarbons Prohibited
Formaldehyde Prohibited
Functional chemical finishes Prohibited Includes but not limited to: chemical finishes for anti microbial, anti- crease, soil resistance, flame retardance, hydrophobic or hydrophilic coatings
GEO Prohibited Includes materials used in the allowed 5% non-organic ingredients and processingaids.
Halogenated compounds Prohibited
Heavy metals Prohibited See ETAD agreement
Ionizing radiation Prohibited
Optical brighteners Prohibited
Pesticide, synthetic Prohibited
PVA Prohibited
Quaternary Ammonium compounds Prohibited
Sewage sludge Prohibited
Silicon (softeners) Prohibited

All the chemicals used in this process are water soluble. An amalyase removes the wheat starch sizing. Two detergents, and an anionic surfactant and the other a fast wetting agent, clean the fabric. A defoamer controls the sudging of the detergents soy lecithin is used to soften the sheets at the end of the process. Whitened fabrics are also treated with sodium silicate. A sequestering agent and stabilizer that aids the bleaching process. Caustic soda removes the natural wax from the yarn and activates the peroxides. A non- ionic surfactant acts as a cleaning agent and silicate dispersant. Bleach (hydrogen peroxide) whitens the fabric.
Technologies adopted:
(1). Use of Enzymes as much as possible instead of harmful chemicals.
(2). Replacement of hazardous chemicals with ecofriendly chemicals.
Use of Enzymes as much as possible instead of harmful chemicals:- Enzymes are large protein molecules, and like other proteins, they are made up of long chains of amino acids.They accelerate the rate of chemical reaction without themselves undergoing any permanent chemical change.Enzymes catalyse reactions under comparatively mild reaction conditions, such as temperatures below 1000C, atmospheric pressure and pH around neutral.Although the enzyme is not consumed in the reaction, it does lose its activity over time and so eventually needs to be replenished.
Mechanism of Enzyme action:- The active centers in the enzyme such as fissures holes, cavity, pockets or hollows from complex with the substrate in lock and key mechanism.Enzymes only accelerate the reaction.Enzymes works under two conditions: Hydrolases - split molecules and Synthetases - join them.
Types of Enzymes:
Sr No. Enzyme Name Substrate Textile Application
1 Amylase Starch Starch Desizing
2 Cellulase Cellulose Stone Wash- Bio Polishing
Carbonization of wool
3 Pectinase Pectin Bio- Scouring
4 Catalase Peroxides Bleach Clean up
5 Lipases Fats and oils Improved Hydrophilicity of Polyester in place of alkaline hydrolysis
Enzymatic Desizing:- Desizing is done to remove the size from the fabric. It is carried out by treating the fabric with chemicals such as acids, alkali or oxidising agents. Amylase Enzymes are widely used as a desizing agent. Enzymes breaks the starch into more easily biodegradable short chain carbohydrates without damaging the fabric.
Bio- Scouring:-Enzymatic Scouring is also called ‘Bio-Scouring’. Enzymatic Scouring gives a fabric with a high and even wet ability.Today, highly alkaline chemicals caustic soda are used for scouring.These chemicals not only remove the non-cellulosic impurities from the cotton, but also attack the cellulose leading to heavy strength loss and weight loss in the fabric. Loss of strength and weight is reduced to a great extent by using Enzymatic Scouring. Also with Enzymatic Scouring BOD, COD and TDS are reduced to very low level as compared to that as scouring carried out by using caustic soda.
Finishing:- By using Enzymes in textile finishing sector reduce water usage by about 17–18%, cost associated with water usage by 50–60%.Textile mills may cut water consumption by as much as 30–50% by using Enzyme.
Bio-Polishing:- Bio –Polishing gives the fabric a smoother and glossier appearance. Cotton and cotton blend fabrics contain small cellulosic micro fibrils. Cellulase enzymes are used to remove these fuzz/pills, imparting softness/smoothness to the fabric, imparting gloss/luster to the fabric. Cellulase enzymes are capable of degrading cellulose by performing a specific catalytic action on the 1, 4-linkage of two beta-glucose residues of the cellulose molecules.
Denim Finishing:- Many garments are subjected to a wash treatment to give them a slightly worn look; example is the stonewashing of denim jeans. In the traditional stonewashing process, the blue denim was faded by the abrasive action of pumice stones on the garment surface. Now a days, denim finishers are using a special cellulase. Cellulase is used for ‘Bio-Stonewashing'. A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones. Reduction in fabric strength can be controlled to within 2-7% by terminating the treatment after about 30-40 minutes using a high temperature or low pH 'enzyme stop'.
Application in E.T.P.:- Zeneca Environet is currently pioneering one approach to this problem which involves direct microbial attack on the azo-linkage of organic dyestuffs, leading to their complete degradation in solution.
In this method of processing, we can use certain chemicals which are non- hazardous in place of the harmful chemicals which increases the effluents. We can use the dyes which are free from the aromatic amines and use of certain chemicals such as Acrylates for starch, fatty alkyl Sulphates for alkyl benzene sulphonates and cellulose enzymes for the complexing agents.
There is a continuous research going on in this field to have a green technology in the processing of the organic cotton. Some of the technologies which are to be used are: Plasma Technology and Dyeing with supercritical Carbon- dioxide.
We think that the health problems are becoming the hot issues now a days and to get rid of there should be ecofriendliness in all the fields. Hence the green technology is very important and Organic cotton has a big value in life as cotton is considered as the king of all the textile fibers.
CONCLUSION:-The concern for a life devoid of the use of extremely harmful toxic chemicals, the need for an eco-friendly industrial and agricultural culture and an increasing awareness of depleting natural resources and the consequences therein; these are factors which are shaping the lifestyles of people worldwide. It is in this context that the relevance of organic cotton becomes important.
Organic cotton is not only better for our bodies but better for our environment. It makes a world of difference in the health and comfort of our people, especially those with allergies, asthma, or multiple chemical sensitivities. Especially infants can enjoy the purest softness, comfort and strength of cotton while diminishing the harm to our environment because what is toxic to you is 15 times more toxic to a baby. Not only do these synthetic pesticides pollute our air, water and soil, but they jeopardize our future.
The conventional cotton farming takes an astonishing amount of the responsibility for contaminating our planet by using a full quarter of the pesticides worldwide. Twenty thousand deaths can be accredited to poisoning by farming pesticides; three million people suffer from chronic health problems reported by The World Health Organisation. We know it's alarming!
Er Manwinder Singh Giaspur (9818020236)
Prop. technogrip products
Giaspur Ludhiana 

Friday, July 01, 2011

Joint Forces Command Transfers More Functions

By Donna Miles 
American Forces Press Service

WASHINGTON, June 30, 2011 - U.S. Joint Forces Command marked two more steps toward its disestablishment today as it transferred its Joint Warfare Analysis Center to U.S. Strategic Command and its Joint Enabling Capabilities Command to U.S. Transportation Command.
Click photo for screen-resolution image
The U.S. Strategic Command flag is unfurled at the Joint Warfare Analysis Center transition-of-command ceremony in Dahlgren, Va., June 30, 2011. The ceremony marked the transition of JWAC from U.S. Joint Forces Command to U.S. Strategic Command, headquartered at Offutt Air Force Base, Neb. U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Vanessa Valentine 
Today's transition ceremonies at Dahlgren, Va., and Joint Forces Command's Joint Warfighting Center in Suffolk, Va., respectively, represented the latest in a continuing effort to realign the command's functions and generate greater efficiencies within the Defense Department.
The Joint Warfare Analysis Center provides comprehensive technical analyses on a wide array of national security challenges and issues. This support helps inform and support decision makers involved in combat operations as well as high-level policy-making sessions, command officials said.
The Joint Enabling Capabilities Command provides immediate, short-duration support to establish, organize and operate joint force headquarters across the globe, officials explained. It brings capability and expertise in plans, operations, logistics, information superiority, knowledge management, communications and public affairs.
All affected elements will remain at their current locations. The Joint Warfighter Analysis Center is based in Dahlgren and the JECC headquarters, as well as its Joint Deployable Team and Joint Public Affairs Support Element, in Hampton Roads, Va. The JECC's Joint Communications Support Element is at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Fla.
Both the JWAC and JECC commanders offered assurances that their support will continue uninterrupted during the transition, the most recent at Joint Forces Command.
Joint Forces Command transferred its Joint Capability Development Directorate to the Joint Staff June 1. The directorate is now known as the deputy director for command and control, communications and computers with responsibility for overseeing C4 processes and initiatives.
On May 20, Joint Forces Command's Joint Unmanned Aircraft System Center of Excellence at Creech Air Force Base, Nev., transferred to the Joint Staff's Force Structure, Resources and Assessment Directorate. The center's staff focuses on standardizing, integrating and training joint warfighters for unmanned aircraft systems and their products.
Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, who retired today, announced in August that he would recommend eliminating Joint Forces Command and assigning its essential functions to other organizations. With the depth of joint experience now established in the services through experience in Afghanistan, Iraq and around the world, Gates said the department no longer needs a four-star combatant command specifically focused on joint training, doctrine and operations.
President Barack Obama approved Joint Forces Command's disestablishment Jan. 6.
Army Gen. Raymond T. Odierno, commander of Joint Forces Command, said last month at the 2011 Joint Warfighting Conference that the services must encourage young leaders to embrace the principles advanced at the command.
"We need leaders with vision. We need leaders willing to tackle these difficult issues," he told the forum. "We need leaders who will do what's better for our force as a whole and not focus internally on their own service ... It's ultimately about achieving greater effectiveness in national security while acting more efficiently."
Odierno told reporters earlier this year he was committed to completing the reorganization in a way that doesn't compromise critical capabilities.
"What I hope to see is that we're able to do our job better to support combatant commands in the services as they request help," he said, "whether it's conducting training exercises around the world or developing new doctrines for Afghanistan or ballistic missile defense or other areas."
Obama nominated Odierno last month to become the next Army chief of staff. The president also named Army Lt. Gen. Keith Huber, Joint Forces Command's deputy commander, to serve as commander of Joint Task Force 435 in Afghanistan.
(Editor's Note: Army Sgt. Josh LeCappelain of Joint Forces Command Public Affairs Office and Whitney Williams from Joint Enabling Capabilities Command contributed to this article.)
Related Sites:
U.S. Joint Forces Command